Gnathology deals with the treatment of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system, or problems relating to the functions of the mouth.
Dysfunctions of the mouth are called DTM (Temporo-Mandibular Disorders) or DCM (Cranio-Mandibular Dysfunctions) and are a heterogeneous group of alterations that can also be very uncomfortable for the patient.
The main symptoms are pain, joint noises during mandibular movements (called clicks) and limitation of mandibular movements; they can be mild and do not bother the patient as well as being intense and disabling.
The tendency of these symptoms is to worsen over the years and should not be underestimated especially in elderly patients who have lost many teeth and who do not have a prosthesis to replace the lost teeth. A consultation visit to the specialist can highlight these disorders which can be kept under control with adequate therapy.
The gnathological examination often makes use of questionnaires that are proposed to the patient and of radiological and functional investigations; usually a release plate (or Michigan plate) is prescribed, which allows you to relax the muscles of the jaws and reposition the two dental arches correctly.
The key factors in the development of this type of pathology are stress and occlusion; the first therapy will therefore focus on the removal of these causal factors through the reduction of emotional tension and prosthetic rehabilitation or correction of incongruous prostheses. Subsequently, if the disorder persists, may it be necessary to prescribe drugs or innovative treatments with laser therapy or electrostimulators capable of reducing the muscle tension that causes these disorders?
The key factors in the development of this type of pathology are stress and occlusion.
An important factor that aggravates this type of disorder is parafunction: this term indicates a set of anomalous activities that overload the stomatognathic system and that the patient unconsciously performs during the day or at night; the parafunctions are bruxism (rubbing of the teeth), clenching (forced closing of the teeth) and tapping (repeated fluttering of the teeth).
A night bite can solve the problems related to these abnormal activities, namely the onset of TMD and excessive wear of the teeth.